Hydatidiform Mole; Histological Types and Age Distribution in Basrah Hydatidiform mole; histological types and age distribution in Basrah

Main Article Content

Wafa abdulkareem Ali
Rasha Sabah Manuel
Jasim M Al-Diab


hydatidiform mole, gestational trophoblastic disease, Miscarriage , Histopathology, Basrah


Background Hydatidiform mole (HM) is a placental pathology, which is a form of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). HM is classified into complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) and partial hydatidiform mole (PHM). The incidence of molar pregnancy varies according to the geographical area. It is found to be higher in developing countries. Age is a risk factor for developing HM. In this study, we aim to determine the frequency of hydatidiform mole among cases of early trimester evacuation specimens and its relation to patient's age at Basrah maternity and paediatric hospital and Al- Mosawi private hospital.


Patients and Methods This was a descriptive retrospective study for a four-year period; all cases of early trimester evacuation specimens were from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2020. All specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and dehydrated in graduated alcohol, (5) micron thickness sections were obtained, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined, and cases of CHM, PHM and RPOG were analyzed.


Results A total of 216 evacuation specimens were examined, and the patients age ranged from 14–50 years. Among these, 78.2% of patients were between 20 and 30 years. The percentage of RPOC was 54.2%, while that of CHM was 19.4% and that of PHM was 26.4%. The maximum cases of complete and partial mole were in the 20–30 years age group.


Conclusions The frequency of HM was high compared to many other studies.



Abstract 260 | Full text PDF Downloads 153


1. Schorge JO, Bradshaw KD, Halvorson LM, Schaffer JI, and Corton MM. Williams Gynecology. New York City: McGraw-Hill; 2008.
2. Fu J, Fang F, Xie L, Chen H, He F, Wu T et al. Prophylactic chemotherapy for hydatidiform mole to prevent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2012; 11(9):CD007289.
3. Lurain JR. Gestational trophoblastic disease I: Epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease, and management of hydatidiform mole. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2010;203(6):531–539,.
4. Igwegbe A, Eleje G. Hydatidiform mole: A review of management outcomes in a tertiary hospital in south-east Nigeria. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. 2013;3(2):210.
5. Sebire N, Seckl M. Gestational trophoblastic disease: Current management of hydatidiform mole. BMJ. 2008;337:a1193.
6. Briggete Ronnet. Hydatidiform mole: Ancillary Techniques to Refine Diagnosis. Arch Path Lab Med. 2018;142(12):1485–1502.
7. Banet N, DeScipio C, Murphy KM et al. Characteristics of hydatidiform moles: Analysis of a prospective series with p57 immunohistochemistry and molecular genotyping. Modern Pathology. 2014;27(2):238–254.
8. Tasci Y, Dilbaz S, Secilmis O et al. Routine histopathologic analysis of product of conception following first-trimester spontaneous miscarriages. Journal of Obstetrics. 2005 Dec;31 (6):579-82.
9. Fram KM. Histological analysis of the products of conception following first trimester abortion at Jordan University Hospital. Eur J Obst Gye Reproduc Biol. 2002;Nov105(2):147–9.
10. Alsibiani SA. Value of histopathologic examination of uterine products after first-trimester miscarriage. BioMed Research International. 2005;2014:579–582.
11. Lama P, Pariyar J. Histopathological analysis of products of conception in first trimester spontaneous abortion. Nep J Obstet Gyeco. 2021;16(32):31–33.
12. Payman Rashid. The role of histopathological examination of the products of conception following first trimester miscarriage in Erbil maternity hospital. Zanco J of Medical sciences. 2017;21 (3):1938–1942.
13. Matlob RM, Yalda MI, Hussein ZH, Fraj TQ. Hydatiform mole in Duhok, Iraq: Frequency, types and histopathological diagnostic features. J Surg Med. 2020;4(1):9–11.
14. Stephen James Steigrad. Epidemiology of gestational trophoblastic diseases. Best Prac Res Clin Obst Gyn. 2003;17(6):837–47.
15. Fulcheri E, Di CE, Ragni N. Histologic examination of products of conception at the time of pregnancy termination. Int J Gyn Obst. 2003;80(3):315–6.
16. El-Halaby O, AbdElaziz O, Elkelani O, Abo Elnaser M, Sanad Z, Samaka R. The value of routine histopathological examination of products of conception in case of first trimester spontaneous miscarriage. Tanta Medical Science J. 2006;1(4):83–8.
17. Heath V, Chadwick V, Cooke I, Manek S, MacKenzie IZ. Should tissue from pregnancy termination and uterine evacuation routinely be examined histologically? Br J Obst Gyn. 2000;107(6):727–30.
18. Sebire NJ, Foskett M, Fisher RA, Rees H, Seckl M, Newlands E. Risk of partial and complete relation hydatidiform molar pregnancy in relation to maternal age. BJOG. 2002;109:99–102.
19. Ngan HY, Seckl MJ, Berkowitz RS, Xiang Y, Golfier F, Sekharan PK, Lurain JR, Massuger L. Update on the diagnosis and management of gestational trophoblastic disease. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2018;143:79–85.
20. Najah Mubark N, Turki Jalil A, Hussain Dilfi S. Descriptive study of hydatidiform mole according to type and age among patients in Wasit Province, Iraq. Global Journal of Public Health Medicin. 2020;2(1):118–124.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 62

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.