Antisocial Behavior Etiologies Antisocial Behavior Etiologies

Main Article Content

Sundus Fadhil Hantoosh
Rasha Sadeq Ameen
Seenaa S. Amin


antisocial behavior, predatory, violent, Aggression


Antisocial behavior is a broad term that encompasses many facets of destructive behavior, most of which bring harm to another person or involve the violation of rights of others. Main antisocial behavior victims are young individuals, women and children. Numerous factors interact together for the development of aggression and antisocial behavior; these factors are social, environmental, physiological, neurological, and genetic. Consequently, this paper addresses the principal etiologic factors that participate in the development of antisocial behaviors for children, adolescents, and adult individuals.



Abstract 225 | Full text PDF Downloads 79


1- World Health Organization. (1996). WHA 49.25 Prevention of violence: a public health priority. Forty-ninth Assembly May 20-25. Geneva: World Health Association.

2- World Health Organization. (2002).World report on violence and health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

3- Goozen S.; Fairchild G.; Snoek H.; Harold G. (2007). The evidence for a neurobiological model of childhood antisocial behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1):149-182.
4- Bennett S.; Farrington DP.; Huesmann R. (2005). Explaining gender differences in crime and violence: the importance of social cognitive skills.
Aggression Violent Behavior, 10:263-88.

5- Mendes D.; Mari J.; Singer M.; Barros G.; Mello A. (2009). Study review of the biological, social and environmental factors associated with aggressive behavior. Rev Bras Psiquiatr, 31(Suppl11):(S77-85).

6- Warner V.; Weissman MM.; Mufson L.; Wickramaratne P. (1999). Grandparents, parents and grandchildren at high risk for depression: a three-generation study. J AmAcad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 38:289-296.

7- Kim-Cohen J.; Miffitt T.; Taylor A.; Pawlby S.; Caspi A. (2005). Maternal depression and children’s antisocial behavior. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 62:173-181.
8- Vitiello B.; Stoff DM. (1997). Subtypes of aggression and their relevance to child psychiatry. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36: 307–315.

9- Stoff DM.; Vitiello B. (1996). Role of serotonin in aggression of children and adolescents: Biochemical and pharmacological studies. In DM. Stoff and RB. Cairns (Eds.), Aggression and violence: Genetic, neurobiological and biological perspectives (pp. 67–85). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

10- Prado E.; Dewey K. (2014). Nutrition and brain development in early life. Nutrition Reviews, 72(4):267-284.

11- Jackson D. (2016). The link between poor quality nutrition and childhood antisocial behavior: a genetically informative analysis. Journal of Criminal Justice, 44:13-20.

12- Thompson R.; Tabone J. K.; Litrownik A. J.; Briggs E. C.; Hussey J. M.; English D. J.; Dubowitz H. (2010). Early adolescent risk behavior outcomes of childhood externalizing behavioral trajectories. Journal of Early Adolescence, 31(2): 234–257.

13- Fergusson D. M.; Boden J.M.; Horwood L. J. (2014). Bullying in childhood, externalizing behaviors, and adult offending: Evidence from a 30-year study. Journal of School Violence, 13(1): 146–164.

14- Gray G. (1986). Diet, crime and delinquency: a critique. Nutrition Reviews, Supplement/May 1986:89-94.

15- Virkkunen M. (1983). Insulin secretion during the glucose tolerance test in antisocial personality. Br J Psychiatry, 142:598-604.

16- Oh S. Y.; Ahn H.; Chang N.; Kang M. H.; V Oh J. (2013). Dietary patterns and weight status associated with behavioural problems in young children. Public Health Nutrition: 1-7.

17- Gómez-Pinilla F. (2008). Brain foods: The effects of nutrients on brain function. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9(7): 568–578.

18- Gesch CB.; Hammond SM.; Hampson SE.; Eves A.; Crowder MJ. (2002). Influence of supplementary vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids on the antisocial behaviour of young adult prisoners: randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry, 181:22–28.
19- Hibbeln J. R.; Ferguson T. A.; Blasbalg T. L. (2006). Omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies in neurodevelopment, aggression and autonomic dysregulation: Opportunities for intervention. International Review of Psychiatry, 18(2): 107–118.

20- Woo H. D.; Kim D.W.; Hong Y. S.; Kim Y. M.; Seo J. H.; Choe B. M.; Kim J. (2014). Dietary patterns in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nutrients, 6(4): 1539–1553.

21- Halas ES.; Reynolds GM.; Sandstead HH. (1977). Intra-uterine nutrition and its effects on aggression. Physiol Behav. ,19:653–661.
22- Neugebauer R.; Hoek HW.; Susser E. (1999). Prenatal exposure to wartime famine and development of antisocial personality disorder in early adulthood. JAMA., 4:479–481.
23- Raine A. (1993). The Psychopathology of Crime: Criminal Behavior as a Clinical Disorder. Academic Press; San Diego: 1993.
24- Werbach M. (1995). Nutritional influences on aggressive behavior. J Orthomolecular Med, 7:45-51.

25- Bath SC.; Steer CD.; Golding J.; Emmett P.; Rayman MP. (2013). Effect of inadequate iodine status in UK pregnant women on cognitive outcomes in their children: results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Lancet, 382:331–337.

26- Lozoff B.; Beard J.; Connor J.; Barbara F.; Georgieff M.; Schallert T. (2006). Long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of iron deficiency in infancy. Nutr Rev., 64(Suppl):S34–S43.

27- Sandstead HH.; Frederickson CJ.; Penland JG. (2000). History of zinc as related to brain function. J Nutr., 130(Suppl 2):496S–502S.

28- Bartels M, van de Aa N, van Beijsterveldt CEM, Middeldorp CM, Boomsma DI. Adolescent self-report of emotional and behavioral problems: interactions of genetic factors with sex and age. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2011; 20(1):35–52. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar.
29- Niv S, Baker LA. Genetic marker for antisocial behavior. In: Thomas C, Pope K, editors. The origins of antisocial behavior: A developmental perspective. Oxford University Press; New York: 2010. [Google Scholar].
30- Tuvblad C, Baker LA. Huber R, Brennan P, Bannasch D, editors. Human Aggression across the Lifespan: Genetic Propensities and Environmental Moderators. Advances in Genetics (Aggression) 2011;75:171–214. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar].
31- Caspi A, McClay J, Moffitt TE, Mill J, Martin J, Craig IW, et al. Role of geno-type in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science. 2002; 297(5582):851–854. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].
32- Brunner HG, Nelen M, Breakefield XO, Ropers HH, van Oost BA. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A. Science. 1993;262(5133):578–580. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].
33- Guo G, Ou X, Roettger M, Shih JC. The VNTR repeat in MAO-A and delinquent behavior in adolescence and young adulthood: associations and MAO-A promoter activity. European Journal of Human Genetics. 2008;16:626–634. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar].
34- Raine A. (2011). From genes to brain to antisocial behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(5):323-328.
35- Denney RM.; Koch H.; Craig IW. (1999). Association between monoamine oxidase A activity in human male skin fibroblasts and genotype of the MAOA promoter-associated variable number tandem repeat. Hum Genet,105(6):542-51.

36- Widom CS.; Brzustowicz LM. (2006). MAOA and the “cycle of violence:” chidhood abuse and neglect, MAOA genotype, and risk for violent
and antisocial behavior. Biol Psychiatry, 60(7):684-9.
37- Cases O.; Seif I.; Grimsby J.; Gaspar P.; Chen K.; Pournin S.; Muller U.; Aguet M.; Babinet C.; Shin JC. (1995). Aggressive behavior and altered amounts of brain serotonin and norepinephrine in mice lacking MAOA. Science, 268: 1763–1766.

38- Meyer-Lindenberg A.; Buckholtz J.W.; Kolachana B.; Hariri A.R.; Pezawas L.; Blasi G.; Wabnitz A.; Honea R.; Verchinski B.; Callicott JH.; Egan M.; Mattay V.; Weinberger DR. (2006). Neural mechanisms of genetic risk for impulsivity and violence in humans. Proceedings of theNational Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 103, 6269–6274.

39- Davidson RJ.; Putnam KM.; Larson CL. (2000). Dysfunction in the neural circuitry of emotion regulation-a possible prelude to violence. Science, 289:591–594.

40- Volavka J. (1999). The neurobiology of violence: an update. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 11:307–314.

41- Coccaro EF. (1989). Central serotonin and impulsive aggression. British Journal of Psychiatry Supplements, 8:52–62.

42- Raleigh MJ.; McGuire MT.; Brammer GL.; Pollack DB.; Yuwiler A. (1991). Serotonergic mechanisms promote dominance acquisition in adult male vervet monkeys. Brain Research, 559:181–190.

43- Brown GL.; Goodwin FK.; Ballenger JC.; Gover PF. (1979). Aggression in humans correlates with cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolites. Psychiatry Research, 1:131–139.

44- Virkkunen M.; Rawlings R.; Tokola R.; Poland RE.; Guidotti A.; Nemeroff CB.; Bissette G.; Kalogeras K.; Karonen SL.; Linnoila M. (1994). CSF biochemistries, glucose metabolism, and diurnal activity rhythms in alcoholic, violent offenders, fire setters, and healthy volunteers. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51:20–27.

45- Traskman-Bendz L.; Asberg M.; Schalling D. (1986). Serotonergic function and suicidal behavior in personality disorders. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Genetics, Pathophysiology, and Molecular, 487:168–74.

46- Lidberg L.; Tuck JR.; Asberg M.; Scalia-Tomba GP.; Bertilsson L. (1985). Homicide, suicide and CSF 5-HIAA. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 71:230–236.

47- Virkkunen M.; De Jong J.; Bartko JJ.; Goodwin FK.; Linnoila M. (1989). Relationship of psychobiological variables to recidivism in violent offenders and impulsive fire setters: a follow-up study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46:600–603.

48- Moore T.;Scarpa A.; Raine A. (2002). A Meta-Analysis of Serotonin Metabolite 5-HIAA and Antisocial Behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 28:299–316.

49- Virkkunen M.; Linnoila M. (1993). Brain serotonin, type II alcoholism and impulsive violence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 11:163–169.

50- Linnoila M.; Virkkunen M.; Scheinin M.; Nuutila A.; Rimon R.; Goodwin FK. (1983). Low cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentration differentiates impulsive from nonimpulsive violent behavior. Life Sciences, 33:2609–2614.

51- Berggard C.; Damberg M.; Longato-Stadler E.; Hallman J.; Oreland L.; Garpenstrand H. (2003). The serotonin 2A-1438 G/A receptor polymorphism in a group of Swedish male criminals. Neuroscience Letters, 347:196–198.

52- Beitchman JH.; Baldassarra L.; Mik H.; De Luca V.; King N.; Bender D.; Ehtesham S.; Kennedy JL. (2006). Serotonin transporter polymorphisms and persistent, pervasive childhood aggression. Am J Psychiatry, 163(6):1103-5.

53- Spoont M. R. (1992). Modulatory role of serotonin in neural information processing: Implications for human psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin, 112: 330–350.

54- Zageer D.; Hantoosh S.; AL-Rubai H. (2019). Amino Acids Deficits in Brain. Book Publisher International. India-United Kingdom. ISBN: 978-93-89246-36-0(print). DOI: 10.9734/bpi/mono/978-93-89246-36-0.

55- Lawrence AD.; Calder AJ.; McGowan SW.; Grasby PM. (2002). Selective disruption of the recognition of facial expressions of anger. Neuroreport, 13:881–884.

56- Bergh C.; Eklund T.; Sodersten P.; Nordin C. (1993). Altered dopamine function in pathological gambling. Neuropsychobiology, 28:30–6.

57- Brunner D.; Hen R. (1997). Insights into the neurobiology of impulsive behavior from serotonin receptor knockout mice. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Genetics, Pathophysiology, and Molecular, 836:81–105.

58- Seo D.; Patrick C. (2008). Role of serotonin and dopamine system interactions in the neurobiology of impulsive aggression and its comorbidity with other clinical disorders. Aggress Violent Behav, 13(5):383-395.
59- Chotai J.; Kullgren G.; Asberg M. (1998). CSF monoamine metabolites in relation to the diagnostic interview for borderline patients (DIB). Neuropsychobiology, 38:207–212.

60- Friedel RO. (2004). Dopamine dysfunction in borderline personality disorder: a hypothesis. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29:1029–1039.

61- Guo G.; Roettger ME.; Shih JC. (2007). Contributions of the DAT1 and DRD2 genes to serious and violence delinquency among adolescents and young adults. Hum Genet, 121(1):125-36.

62- Kotler M.; Barak P.; Cohen H.; Averbuch IE.; Grinshpoon A.; Gritsenko I. (1999). Homicidal behavior in schizophrenia associated with a genetic polymorphism determining low COMT activity. Am J Med Genet, 88(6):628-33.

63- Brennan PA.; Grekin ER.; Mednick SA. (1999). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult male criminal outcomes. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 56(3):215-9.

64- Orlebeke JF.; Knol DL.; Verhulst FC. (1997). Increase in child behavior problems resulting from maternal smoking during pregnancy. Arch EnvironHealth, 52(4):317-21.

65- Liu JH. (2004). Prenatal and perinatal complications as predispositions to externalizing behavior. J Prenatal Perinatal Psychol Health, 18(4):301-11.

66- Roebuck TM.; Mattson SN.;Riley EP. (1999). Behavioral and psychosocial profiles of alcohol-exposed children. Alcohol Clin Exp Res,23(6):1070-6.

67- Delaney-Black V.; Covington C.; Templin T.; Ager J.; Nordstrom-Klee lB.; Martier S.; Leddick L.; Czerwinski RH.; Sokol RJ. (2000). Teacher-assessed behavior of children prenatally exposed to cocaine. Pediatrics, 106(4):782-91.

68- Raine, A., & Yang, Y. (2006). Neural foundations to moral reasoning and antisocial behavior. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 1(3), 203-213.

69- Jones H. (1984). Neuropsychology of violence. Forensic Reports, 5:221-33.

70- Liu J.; Wuerker A. (2005). Biosocial bases of aggressive and violent behavior implicationsfor nursing studies. Int J Nurs Stud, 42(2): 229-41.

71- Archer J. (1991). The influence of testosterone on human aggression. Br J Psychol, 82:1–28.

72- Archer J. (1994). Testosterone and aggression. J OffendRehabil, 21:3–25.

73- Olweus D.; Mattson Å.; Schalling D.; Löw H. (1988). Circulating testosterone levels and aggression in adolescent males: A causal analysis. Psychosom Med, 50:261–272.

74- Aromaki A.; Lindman R.; Erikkson C. (1999). Testosterone, aggressiveness, and antisocial personality. Aggressive Behavior, 25:113-123.

75- Bergman B.; Brismar B. (1994). Hormone levels and personality traits in abusive and suicidal male alcoholics. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 18: 311–316.

76- Kruesi M. J.; Schmidt M. E.; Donnelly M.; Hibbs E. D.; Hamburger S. D. (1989). Urinary free cortisol output and disruptive behavior in children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28: 441–443.

77- Farrington DP. (1998). Predictors, causes and correlates of male youth violence. In: Tonry M, Moore M, editors. Youth violence. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p.421-75.

78- Reif A.; Rösler M.; Freitag CM.; Schneider M.; Eujen A.; Kissling C.; Wenzier D.; Jacob CP.; Retz-Junginger P.; Thome J.; Lesch KP.; Retz W. (2007). Nature and nurture predispose to violent behavior: serotonergic genes and adverse childhood environment. Neuropsychopharmacology, 32(11):2375-83.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >>